Fabulele lui Aesop au rezistat mii de ani și sunt și astăzi relevante. Iată în continuare câteva dintre ele citite în limba engleză de către vorbitori nativi, împreună cu textul lor în limba engleză.
Dă drumul la audio și urmărește textul în același timp. Încearcă să înțelegi cât mai bine despre ce e vorba. Repetă de mai multe ori. Apoi caută cuvintele pe care nu le cunoști în dicționar. Nu descuraja dacă unele cuvinte sau expresii par mai grele! Nu e neapărat nevoie să înțelegi 100% fiecare cuvânt, dar încearcă să prinzi ideea principală de fiecare dată. Dacă vrei neapărat, caută și varianta în română.
Spune-mi cum ți se pare această metodă de a exersa limba engleză!
The Fox and The Grapes
A hungry Fox saw some fine bunches of Grapes hanging from a vine that was trained along a high trellis, and did his best to reach them by jumping as high as he could into the air. But it was all in vain, for they were just out of reach: so he gave up trying, and walked away with an air of dignity and unconcern, remarking, „I thought those Grapes were ripe, but I see now they are quite sour.”
The Goose That Laid The Golden Eggs
A Man and his Wife had the good fortune to possess a Goose which laid a Golden Egg every day. Lucky though they were, they soon began to think they were not getting rich fast enough, and, imagining the bird must be made of gold inside, they decided to kill it in order to secure the whole store of precious metal at once. But when they cut it open they found it was just like any other goose. Thus, they neither got rich all at once, as they had hoped, nor enjoyed any longer the daily addition to their wealth.
Much wants more and loses all.
The Cat and the Mice
There was once a house that was overrun with Mice. A Cat heard of this, and said to herself, „That’s the place for me,” and off she went and took up her quarters in the house, and caught the Mice one by one and ate them. At last the Mice could stand it no longer, and they determined to take to their holes and stay there. „That’s awkward,” said the Cat to herself: „the only thing to do is to coax them out by a trick.” So she considered a while, and then climbed up the wall and let herself hang down by her hind legs from a peg, and pretended to be dead. By and by a Mouse peeped out and saw the Cat hanging there. „Aha!” it cried, „you’re very clever, madam, no doubt: but you may turn yourself into a bag of meal hanging there, if you like, yet you won’t catch us coming anywhere near you.”
If you are wise you won’t be deceived by the innocent airs of those whom you have once found to be dangerous.
The Mischievous Dog
There was once a Dog who used to snap at people and bite them without any provocation, and who was a great nuisance to every one who came to his master’s house. So his master fastened a bell round his neck to warn people of his presence. The Dog was very proud of the bell, and strutted about tinkling it with immense satisfaction. But an old dog came up to him and said, „The fewer airs you give yourself the better, my friend. You don’t think, do you, that your bell was given you as a reward of merit? On the contrary, it is a badge of disgrace.”
Notoriety is often mistaken for fame.
The Charcoal-Burner and The Fuller
There was once a Charcoal-burner who lived and worked by himself. A Fuller, however, happened to come and settle in the same neighbourhood; and the Charcoal-burner, having made his acquaintance and finding he was an agreeable sort of fellow, asked him if he would come and share his house: „We shall get to know one another better that way,” he said, „and, beside, our household expenses will be diminished.” The Fuller thanked him, but replied, „I couldn’t think of it, sir: why, everything I take such pains to whiten would be blackened in no time by your charcoal.”
The Mice in Council
Once upon a time all the Mice met together in Council, and discussed the best means of securing themselves against the attacks of the cat. After several suggestions had been debated, a Mouse of some standing and experience got up and said, „I think I have hit upon a plan which will ensure our safety in the future, provided you approve and carry it out. It is that we should fasten a bell round the neck of our enemy the cat, which will by its tinkling warn us of her approach.” This proposal was warmly applauded, and it had been already decided to adopt it, when an old Mouse got upon his feet and said, „I agree with you all that the plan before us is an admirable one: but may I ask who is going to bell the cat?”
The Bat And The Weasels
A Bat fell to the ground and was caught by a Weasel, and was just going to be killed and eaten when it begged to be let go. The Weasel said he couldn’t do that because he was an enemy of all birds on principle. „Oh, but,” said the Bat, „I’m not a bird at all: I’m a mouse.” „So you are,” said the Weasel, „now I come to look at you”; and he let it go. Some time after this the Bat was caught in just the same way by another Weasel, and, as before, begged for its life. „No,” said the Weasel, „I never let a mouse go by any chance.” „But I’m not a mouse,” said the Bat; „I’m a bird.” „Why, so you are,” said the Weasel; and he too let the Bat go.
Look and see which way the wind blows before you commit yourself.
The Dog and The Sow
A Dog and a Sow were arguing and each claimed that its own young ones were finer than those of any other animal. „Well,” said the Sow at last, „mine can see, at any rate, when they come into the world: but yours are born blind.”
The Fox And The Crow
A Crow was sitting on a branch of a tree with a piece of cheese in her beak when a Fox observed her and set his wits to work to discover some way of getting the cheese. Coming and standing under the tree he looked up and said, „What a noble bird I see above me! Her beauty is without equal, the hue of her plumage exquisite. If only her voice is as sweet as her looks are fair, she ought without doubt to be Queen of the Birds.” The Crow was hugely flattered by this, and just to show the Fox that she could sing she gave a loud caw. Down came the cheese, of course, and the Fox, snatching it up, said, „You have a voice, madam, I see: what you want is wits.”
The Horse and the Groom
There was once a Groom who used to spend long hours clipping and combing the Horse of which he had charge, but who daily stole a portion of his allowance of oats, and sold it for his own profit. The Horse gradually got into worse and worse condition, and at last cried to the Groom, „If you really want me to look sleek and well, you must comb me less and feed me more.”
The Wolf and the Lamb
A Wolf came upon a Lamb straying from the flock, and felt some compunction about taking the life of so helpless a creature without some plausible excuse; so he cast about for a grievance and said at last, „Last year, sirrah, you grossly insulted me.” „That is impossible, sir,” bleated the Lamb, „for I wasn’t born then.” „Well,” retorted the Wolf, „you feed in my pastures.” „That cannot be,” replied the Lamb, „for I have never yet tasted grass.” „You drink from my spring, then,” continued the Wolf. „Indeed, sir,” said the poor Lamb, „I have never yet drunk anything but my mother’s milk.” „Well, anyhow,” said the Wolf, „I’m not going without my dinner”: and he sprang upon the Lamb and devoured it without more ado.
The Peacock And The Crane
A Peacock taunted a Crane with the dullness of her plumage. „Look at my brilliant colours,” said she, „and see how much finer they are than your poor feathers.” „I am not denying,” replied the Crane, „that yours are far gayer than mine; but when it comes to flying I can soar into the clouds, whereas you are confined to the earth like any dunghill cock.”
The Cat And The Birds
A Cat heard that the Birds in an aviary were ailing. So he got himself up as a doctor, and, taking with him a set of the instruments proper to his profession, presented himself at the door, and inquired after the health of the Birds. „We shall do very well,” they replied, without letting him in, „when we’ve seen the last of you.”
A villain may disguise himself, but he will not deceive the wise.
The Spendthrift and the Swallow
A Spendthrift, who had wasted his fortune, and had nothing left but the clothes in which he stood, saw a Swallow one fine day in early spring. Thinking that summer had come, and that he could now do without his coat, he went and sold it for what it would fetch. A change, however, took place in the weather, and there came a sharp frost which killed the unfortunate Swallow. When the Spendthrift saw its dead body he cried, „Miserable bird! Thanks to you I am perishing of cold myself.”
One swallow does not make summer.
The Old Woman and the Doctor
An Old Woman became almost totally blind from a disease of the eyes, and, after consulting a Doctor, made an agreement with him in the presence of witnesses that she should pay him a high fee if he cured her, while if he failed he was to receive nothing. The Doctor accordingly prescribed a course of treatment, and every time he paid her a visit he took away with him some article out of the house, until at last, when he visited her for the last time, and the cure was complete, there was nothing left. When the Old Woman saw that the house was empty she refused to pay him his fee; and, after repeated refusals on her part, he sued her before the magistrates for payment of her debt. On being brought into court she was ready with her defence. „The claimant,” said she, „has stated the facts about our agreement correctly. I undertook to pay him a fee if he cured me, and he, on his part, promised to charge nothing if he failed. Now, he says I am cured; but I say that I am blinder than ever, and I can prove what I say. When my eyes were bad I could at any rate see well enough to be aware that my house contained a certain amount of furniture and other things; but now, when according to him I am cured, I am entirely unable to see anything there at all.”
The Moon and her Mother
The Moon once begged her Mother to make her a gown. „How can I?” replied she; „there’s no fitting your figure. At one time you’re a New Moon, and at another you’re a Full Moon; and between whiles you’re neither one nor the other.”
Mercury and the Woodman
A Woodman was felling a tree on the bank of a river, when his axe, glancing off the trunk, flew out of his hands and fell into the water. As he stood by the water’s edge lamenting his loss, Mercury appeared and asked him the reason for his grief; and on learning what had happened, out of pity for his distress he dived into the river and, bringing up a golden axe, asked him if that was the one he had lost. The Woodman replied that it was not, and Mercury then dived a second time, and, bringing up a silver axe, asked if that was his. „No, that is not mine either,” said the Woodman. Once more Mercury dived into the river, and brought up the missing axe. The Woodman was overjoyed at recovering his property, and thanked his benefactor warmly; and the latter was so pleased with his honesty that he made him a present of the other two axes. When the Woodman told the story to his companions, one of these was filled with envy of his good fortune and determined to try his luck for himself. So he went and began to fell a tree at the edge of the river, and presently contrived to let his axe drop into the water. Mercury appeared as before, and, on learning that his axe had fallen in, he dived and brought up a golden axe, as he had done on the previous occasion. Without waiting to be asked whether it was his or not the fellow cried, „That’s mine, that’s mine,” and stretched out his hand eagerly for the prize: but Mercury was so disgusted at his dishonesty that he not only declined to give him the golden axe, but also refused to recover for him the one he had let fall into the stream.
Honesty is the best policy.
The Ass, The Fox, and The Lion
An Ass and a Fox went into partnership and sallied out to forage for food together. They hadn’t gone far before they saw a Lion coming their way, at which they were both dreadfully frightened. But the Fox thought he saw a way of saving his own skin, and went boldly up to the Lion and whispered in his ear, „I’ll manage that you shall get hold of the Ass without the trouble of stalking him, if you’ll promise to let me go free.” The Lion agreed to this, and the Fox then rejoined his companion and contrived before long to lead him by a hidden pit, which some hunter had dug as a trap for wild animals, and into which he fell. When the Lion saw that the Ass was safely caught and couldn’t get away, it was to the Fox that he first turned his attention, and he soon finished him off, and then at his leisure proceeded to feast upon the Ass.
Betray a friend, and you’ll often find you have ruined yourself.
The Lion And The Mouse
A Lion asleep in his lair was waked up by a Mouse running over his face. Losing his temper he seized it with his paw and was about to kill it. The Mouse, terrified, piteously entreated him to spare its life. „Please let me go,” it cried, „and one day I will repay you for your kindness.” The idea of so insignificant a creature ever being able to do anything for him amused the Lion so much that he laughed aloud, and good-humouredly let it go. But the Mouse’s chance came, after all. One day the Lion got entangled in a net which had been spread for game by some hunters, and the Mouse heard and recognised his roars of anger and ran to the spot. Without more ado it set to work to gnaw the ropes with its teeth, and succeeded before long in setting the Lion free. „There!” said the Mouse, „you laughed at me when I promised I would repay you: but now you see, even a Mouse can help a Lion.”
The Crow And The Pitcher
A thirsty Crow found a Pitcher with some water in it, but so little was there that, try as she might, she could not reach it with her beak, and it seemed as though she would die of thirst within sight of the remedy. At last she hit upon a clever plan. She began dropping pebbles into the Pitcher, and with each pebble the water rose a little higher until at last it reached the brim, and the knowing bird was enabled to quench her thirst.
Necessity is the mother of invention.
The Boys and The Frogs
Some mischievous Boys were playing on the edge of a pond, and, catching sight of some Frogs swimming about in the shallow water, they began to amuse themselves by pelting them with stones, and they killed several of them. At last one of the Frogs put his head out of the water and said, „Oh, stop! stop! I beg of you: what is sport to you is death to us.”
The North Wind and The Sun
A dispute arose between the North Wind and the Sun, each claiming that he was stronger than the other. At last they agreed to try their powers upon a traveller, to see which could soonest strip him of his cloak. The North Wind had the first try; and, gathering up all his force for the attack, he came whirling furiously down upon the man, and caught up his cloak as though he would wrest it from him by one single effort: but the harder he blew, the more closely the man wrapped it round himself. Then came the turn of the Sun. At first he beamed gently upon the traveller, who soon unclasped his cloak and walked on with it hanging loosely about his shoulders: then he shone forth in his full strength, and the man, before he had gone many steps, was glad to throw his cloak right off and complete his journey more lightly clad.
Persuasion is better than force
The Mistress and Her Servants
A Widow, thrifty and industrious, had two servants, whom she kept pretty hard at work. They were not allowed to lie long abed in the mornings, but the old lady had them up and doing as soon as the cock crew. They disliked intensely having to get up at such an hour, especially in winter-time: and they thought that if it were not for the cock waking up their Mistress so horribly early, they could sleep longer. So they caught it and wrung its neck. But they weren’t prepared for the consequences. For what happened was that their Mistress, not hearing the cock crow as usual, waked them up earlier than ever, and set them to work in the middle of the night.
The Goods and The Ills
There was a time in the youth of the world when Goods and Ills entered equally into the concerns of men, so that the Goods did not prevail to make them altogether blessed, nor the Ills to make them wholly miserable. But owing to the foolishness of mankind the Ills multiplied greatly in number and increased in strength, until it seemed as though they would deprive the Goods of all share in human affairs, and banish them from the earth. The latter, therefore, betook themselves to heaven and complained to Jupiter of the treatment they had received, at the same time praying him to grant them protection from the Ills, and to advise them concerning the manner of their intercourse with men. Jupiter granted their request for protection, and decreed that for the future they should not go among men openly in a body, and so be liable to attack from the hostile Ills, but singly and unobserved, and at infrequent and unexpected intervals. Hence it is that the earth is full of Ills, for they come and go as they please and are never far away; while Goods, alas! come one by one only, and have to travel all the way from heaven, so that they are very seldom seen.
The Hares and The Frogs
The Hares once gathered together and lamented the unhappiness of their lot, exposed as they were to dangers on all sides and lacking the strength and the courage to hold their own. Men, dogs, birds and beasts of prey were all their enemies, and killed and devoured them daily: and sooner than endure such persecution any longer, they one and all determined to end their miserable lives. Thus resolved and desperate, they rushed in a body towards a neighbouring pool, intending to drown themselves. On the bank were sitting a number of Frogs, who, when they heard the noise of the Hares as they ran, with one accord leaped into the water and hid themselves in the depths. Then one of the older Hares who was wiser than the rest cried out to his companions, „Stop, my friends, take heart; don’t let us destroy ourselves after all: see, here are creatures who are afraid of us, and who must, therefore, be still more timid than ourselves.”
În limba engleză substantivele nu au genuri, cuvintele au o ordine fixă în propoziţie iar articolele şi pluralul sunt mai simple decât în română. Dar dacă este ceva ce dă de furcă începătorilor (şi nu numai) sunt verbele, în special verbele neregulate.
Ce sunt verbele neregulate?
Verbele neregulate sunt verbele care nu respectă regulile normale de conjugare. De exemplu, verbul neregulat to be (a fi) are mai multe forme diferite (I am, you are, he is) care sunt foarte diferite de verbele regulate cum ar fi to eat (a mânca) (I eat, you eat, he eats).
Câte verbe neregulate sunt în limba engleză?
Deși pe multe liste apar chiar peste 600 de verbe neregulate, în engleza de zi cu zi, 200 de verbe sunt folosite în peste 95% din cazuri (iată aici o listă completă).
Care sunt cele mai folosite verbe neregulate din limba engleză?
Verbele neregulate per total tind să fie mult mai folosite decât cele regulate, iar cele mai populare sunt: be, have, say, do, know, get, see, think, go și take.
Cum pot să învăț verbele neregulate?
Dat fiind că prin definiție nu există o regulă generală pentru verbele neregulate, cel mai bine este să le memorezi de la început. Mulți începători în limba engleză trec peste acest pas și încearcă să le învețe „din mers”, dar în practică se dovedește ca verbele neregulate care nu au fost învățate pe derost de la început continuă să dea de furcă pe tot parcursul vieții.
De aceea recomandarea mea e să pui deoparte timpul necesar (în general două săptămâni sunt suficiente) si să memorezi toate verbele neregulate, iată lista din nou.
Pur și simplu împarte-le în liste de câte 20 pe zi, scrie-le pe un cartonaș și repetă-le toată ziua (pe drum, la magazin, etc).
Sfat: Dacă întâlneşti undeva o formă de verb pe care nu o cunoşti poţi să o cauţi pe conjugare.ro, de exemplu poţi căuta „fought” şi vei vedea că vine de la verbul „to fight„.
Simți că pierzi prea mult timp la filme în loc să faci lucruri mai productive, cum ar fi să înveți engleza? Vestea bună e că cele două nu sunt exclusive, cu o condiție: să minimizezi rolul subtitrărilor în limba română.
Engleza se învață foarte bine absorbind conținut media. Câți dintre noi nu ne-am îmbunătățit engleza la desene animate când eram mici?
E drept că privind un film nu vei stăpâni neapărat toate subitilitățile gramaticale, dar în timp îți vei forma „urechea” pentru engleză, cea ce înseamnă că vei ști când ceva „sună bine” sau nu, chiar dacă nu știi neapărat cum se cheamă regula gramaticală respectivă.
Ideal ar fi să privești la filme fără subtitrări. Eventual pune pauză daca nu înțelegi ceva și caută traducerea pe net. Dacă dialogul este prea rapid, folosește subtitrări în engleză.
Totuși mulți începători sunt descurajați să privească filme fără subtitrări în română. Din păcate dacă folosești (doar) subtitrări în română e foarte posibil ca creierul tău să blocheze majoritatea conținutului din engleză și să se concentreze doar pe traducere.
Așa că vreau să îți propun un compromis, până îți faci curaj să renunți la subtitrările în română, folosește subtitrări duble. E simplu cu VLC, pur și simplu downloadezi cele 2 subtitrări (engleză și română) ca de obicei și le introduci aici pentru a obține un fișier pe care îl introduci în VLC.
Pune subtitrarea în română prima (top) și cea în engleză a doua (bottom), ca privirea să îți sară instinctiv la engleză.
Și încă un sfat: dacă te uiți la filme la TV, încearcă să acoperi cu o hârtie cu scotch partea de jos a televizorului (unde apare subtitrarea). O să pară mai greu la început dar după câteva zile o să te obișnuiești să asculți cu atenție si să nu mai fugi la subtitrare. Se aplică inclusiv pentru vorbitorii avansați, e foarte ușor să treci pe pilot automat și să citești subtitrările, chiar dacă întețegi foarte bine conversațiile în engleză.
O problemă cu care ne confruntăm cu toții este lipsa de timp. Și dacă învățarea unei limbi străine cere ceva, este timp mult.
Totuși ceea ce trebuie să înțelegem este că timpul poate fi pierdut, dar și câștigat. Iată în continuare 3 moduri de a folosi mai eficient timpul pentru a învăța engleza, sau orice altă limbă străină:
Învață pe drum. Drumul până la serviciu/școală este prețios. Ia cu tine material audio sau cartonașe pentru vocabular și repetă repetă repetă. Coadă la supermarket? Perfect! Învață 3 cuvinte noi
Învață distrându-te. Vrei să te relaxezi cu un film? Pune subtitrarea în limba țintă. Nu știi prea bine limba respectivă? Folosește 2 subtitrări în același timp. Bonus dacă te uiți la un film dublat în limba țintă. Muzica, show-uri, jocuri pe calculator, cărți, reviste, chiar și Biblia. Consumă cât mai mult material în limba pe care vrei să o înveți. Ești începător? Există filme, cărți și jocuri pentru copii foarte bune și distractive!
Gândește în altă limbă. Cu toții avem o voce interioară. Când ești singur, vorbește cu tine însuți, dar în engleză (sau limba țintă). Despre ce să vorbești? Simplu: despre ce se îtâmplă atunci: „I am goint to the store. I will buy bread and milk” (Merg la magazin. Voi cumpăra pâine și lapte).
Nu știi cum se spune ceva? Sfat bonus: Poartă mereu un carnețel de buzunar cu tine. Notează cuvintele problemă și când ajung acasă caută-le în dicționar
Așadar, cu toții putem strecura timp ici-colo, iar timpul se adună. 10 minute aici, 20 acolo, o zi o săptămână, o lună. Vei fi uimit cât de mult se adună în câteva luni!
1. Învaţă cel puţin 20 de minute în fiecare zi Este mult mai folositor să înveţi câte puţin zilnic, decât 3-4 ore odată pe săptămână. Ca orice alt obicei, şi acesta se formează în timp, cu perseverenţă.
2. Ascultă cât mai mult
Ascultă muzică, filme, înregistrări, orice în limba engleză. Chiar dacă nu înţelegi tot ce se spune, îţi vei obişnui urechea cu ‘muzicalitatea’ limbii engleze
3. Construieşte pe ce ştii deja
Foloseşte cărţi pentru copii sau cursuri pentru începători pentru a pune temeliile bine. Apoi adaugă puţin câte puţin la vocabular, şi rezultatele te vor uimi în câteva luni!
„Ajută-mă să desfac capacul la borcanul ăsta, te rog”
Pentru orice bărbat, fraza asta este şansa de a salva ziua! Uneori însă, prinşi înentuziasmul momentului, poate uităm în ce direcţie se deschide capacul (sau robinetul)încăpăţânat.
Engleza vine în ajutor cu o zicală uşor de reţinut:
Righty tighty, Lefty loosy
right = dreapta
tight = strâns
left = stânga
loose = desfăcut
Tot ce a trebuit să fac a fost să reţin această zicală şi acum nu mai uit niciodată în ce direcţie trebuie să forţez capacul sau robinetul. Dobândirea forţei necesare pentru deschidere e altă poveste 🙂
Începe să înveţi chiar acum!
Fă primii paşi în limba engleză fără să părăseşti camera